Present project is designed using 8051 microcontroller to avoid railway accidents happening at unattended railway gates, if implemented in spirit. This project utilizes two powerful IR transmitters and two receivers; one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from where the train comes) at a level higher than a human being in exact alignment and similarly the other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction. Sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the Indian railway. We have considered 5 seconds for this project. Sensors are fixed at 1km on both sides of the gate. We call the sensor along the train direction as ‘foreside sensor’ and the other as ‘aft side sensor’. When foreside receiver gets activated, the gate motor is turned on in one direction and the gate is closed and stays closed until the train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors. When aft side receiver gets activated motor turns in opposite direction and gate opens and motor stops. Buzzer will immediately sound at the fore side receiver activation and gate will close after 5 seconds, so giving time to drivers to clear gate area in order to avoid trapping between the gates and stop sound after the train has crossed.
The same principle is applied for track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are traveling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Two sensors are placed at the either sides of the junction where the track switches. If there’s a train approaching from the other side, then another sensor placed along that direction gets activated and will send an interrupt to the controller. The interrupt service routine switches the track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions. Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. Assuming that within a certain delay, the train has passed the track is switched back to its original position, allowing the first train to pass without any interruption. This concept of track switching can be applied at 1km distance from the stations.
Railways being the cheapest mode of transportation are preferred over all the other means .When we go through the daily newspapers we come across many railway accidents occurring at unmanned railway crossings. This is mainly due to the carelessness in manual operations or lack of workers. We, in this project has come up with a solution for the same. Using simple electronic components we have tried to automate the control of railway gates. As a train approaches the railway crossing from either side, the sensors placed at a certain distance from the gate detects the approaching train and accordingly controls the operation of the gate. Also an indicator light has been provided to alert the motorists about the approaching train.
Using the same principle as that for gate control, we have developed a concept of automatic track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are travelling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions .Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. In practical purposes this can be achieved using electromagnets.
The project consists of four main parts:
- 8051 microcontroller
- IR Transmitter
- IR Receiver
- Stepper Motor Circuit
Renewable energy solutions are becoming increasingly popular. Photovoltaic (solar) systems are but one example. Maximizing power output from a solar system is desirable to increase efficiency. In order to maximize power output from solar panels, one needs to keep the panels aligne with the sun. As such, a means of tracking the sun is required. This is definitely a more cost effective solution than purchasing additional solar panels. It has been estimated that the yield from solar panels can be increased by 30 to 60 percent by utilizing a tracking system instead of a stationary array. In this electronics projects paper, a prototype for a microcontroller-based multi-function solar tracking system is described, which will keep the solar panels aligned with the sun in order to maximize efficiency. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) data can be transmitted in real time to other solar systems in need of this data.
v 89C51 Microcontroller.
v Power Supply.
v ADC unit.
v DC MOTOR.
v SOLAR PANNEL
v Embedded C.
v KEIL Compiler.
The rapidly advancing mobile communication technology and the decrease in costs make it possible to incorporate mobile technology into home automation systems. So as a part of our electronics projects We propose a mobile-based home automation system that consists of a cellular GSM modem, and a home server. The home appliances are controlled by the home server,which operates according to the user commands received from the mobile phone via the cellular modem. In our proposed system the home server is built upon an SMS/GPRS (Short Message Service/General Packet Radio Service) GSM modem and a microcontroller, allowing a user to control and monitor any variables related to the home by using any GSM compatible cell phone. This electronics engineering projects presents the design and implementation of AT modem driver, text based command processing software, and power failure resilient output for a microcontroller to facilitate in sending and receiving data via the cell module, together with the design of application software to enable the cell phone to send commands and receive alerts through the cell module.
Home security has been a major issue where crime is increasing and everybody wants to take proper measures to prevent intrusion.
The home appliances control system with an affordable cost was thought to be built that should be mobile providing remote access to the appliances and allowing home security.
Electronics Project Specifications
PC Interface : RS232
Embedded Processor : AT89C52
Embedded Firmware : Embedded ‘C’ – Keil IDE.
Interface Module : GSM Module
PCB : Trax Maker
Application Software : Visual Studio
Electronics Project Learning Outcome
- Embedded System Basics
- Micro-controller programming
- Firmware Development
- Hardware Design and Trouble Shooting
- Application Software Design
- PCB Fabrication