Automatic Railway Gate Control and Track Switching

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ABSTRACT

Present project is designed using 8051 microcontroller to avoid railway accidents happening at unattended railway gates, if implemented in spirit. This project utilizes two powerful IR transmitters and two receivers; one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from where the train comes) at a level higher than a human being in exact alignment and similarly the other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction. Sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the Indian railway. We have considered 5 seconds for this project. Sensors are fixed at 1km on both sides of the gate. We call the sensor along the train direction as ‘foreside sensor’ and the other as ‘aft side sensor’. When foreside receiver gets activated, the gate motor is turned on in one direction and the gate is closed and stays closed until the train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors. When aft side receiver gets activated motor turns in opposite direction and gate opens and motor stops. Buzzer will immediately sound at the fore side receiver activation and gate will close after 5 seconds, so giving time to drivers to clear gate area in order to avoid trapping between the gates and stop sound after the train has crossed.

The same principle is applied for track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are traveling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Two sensors are placed at the either sides of the junction where the track switches. If there’s a train approaching from the other side, then another sensor placed along that direction gets activated and will send an interrupt to the controller. The interrupt service routine switches the track.  Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions. Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. Assuming that within a certain delay, the train has passed the track is switched back to its original position, allowing the first train to pass without any interruption. This concept of track switching can be applied at 1km distance from the stations.

Demo of the system

Gate Control:

Railways being the cheapest mode of transportation are preferred over all the other means .When we go through the daily newspapers we come across many railway accidents occurring at unmanned railway crossings. This is mainly due to the carelessness in manual operations or lack of workers. We, in this project has come up with a solution for the same. Using simple electronic components we have tried to automate the control of railway gates. As a train approaches the railway crossing from either side, the sensors placed at a certain distance from the gate detects the approaching train and accordingly controls the operation of the gate. Also an indicator light has been provided to alert the motorists about the approaching train.

Gate Control

Track Switching

Using the same principle as that for gate control, we have developed a concept of automatic track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are travelling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions .Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. In practical purposes this can be achieved using electromagnets.

Track switching

Hardware Description

The project consists of four main parts:

  1. 8051 microcontroller
  2. IR Transmitter
  3. IR Receiver
  4. Stepper Motor Circuit

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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Design and Implementation of Unique National Identity Card Using RFID Technology-Electronics Projects

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work is to design and implement centralized  RFID based National Identity card management system using embedded microcontroller. In this electronics projects, the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology can be employed for not only bringing down the costs but also facilitate automating and streamlining applicant identification processes in the following systems – Medical information , Passport Information Driving License Ration Card Information Voter ID Information.. The system implements an RFID reader interfaced with an embedded microcontroller to PC. The RFID system manages the details of the applicant like name, address, personal details, business/academic details etc for all the following applications Medical information, Passport Information Driving License Ration Card Information Voter ID Information. By this way the user can maintain a single RFID tag for all possible applications.

electronics engineering projects

Block diagram

Electronics Projects Specifications

PC Interface                    : RS232

Embedded Processor   : AT89C52

Embedded Firmware   : Embedded  ‘C’ –  Keil IDE.

PCB                                 : Trax Maker

Sensor                             : RFID Tag / Reader

Application Software    : Visual Studio

Project Learning Outcome

  • Embedded System Basics
  • Microcontroller programming
  • Firmware Development
  • Hardware Design and Trouble Shooting
  • Application Software Design
  • PCB Fabrication

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
Connect with him on:

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Full Report-REMOTE CONTROL BASED HOME APPLIANCES

CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
  3. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM                           
  4. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
  5. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  6. LIST OF COMPONENTS
  7. PCB LAYOUT
  8. PCB FABRICATION
  9. SOLDERING PRACTICE
  10. TESTING
  11. APPLICATIONS
  12. CONCLUSION
  13. DATA SHEETS
  14. REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Remote control for home appliances is an absolute necessity in our fast-paced life. As a result, much important has been given to this aspect and a range of remote controls are prevalent today. One of the most common is that which makes use of IR radiations at particular frequencies.

Our product is a Remote Operated Home Appliance or Remote controlled Home appliance. The circuit is connected to any of the home appliances (lamp, fan, radio, etc) to make the appliance turn on/off from a TV, VCD, VCR, Air Conditioner or DVD remote control. The circuit can be activated from up to 10 meters. It is very easy to build and can be assembled on a general-purpose PCB.

The circuit essentially consists of a transmitter consisting of a 555 IC, the receiver consisting of an IR module, CD4017 IC, LED’s to indicate the reception of the IR radiations, otherwise indicating the ON/OFF state, relay and other components.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Model Description

Connect this circuit to any of your home appliances (lamp, fan, radio, etc) to make the appliance turn on/off from a TV, VCD or DVD remote control. The circuit can be activated from up to 10 meters. The 38 kHz infrared (IR) rays generated by the remote control are received by IR receiver module TSOP1738 of the circuit. Pin 1 of TSOP1738 is connected to ground, pin 2 is connected to the power supply through resistor R5 and the output is taken from pin 3. The output signal is amplified by transistor T1 (BC558). The amplified signal is fed to clock pin 14 of decade counter IC CD4017 (IC1). Pin 8 of IC1 is grounded, pin 16 is connected to Vcc and pin 3 is connected to LED1 (red), which glows to indicate that the appliance is ‘off.’

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

The product consists of a remote which is the transmitter of the IR radiations and the receiver which responds to the radiations and switches ON and OFF the appliance.

Circuit diagram

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
Connect with him on:

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