In this project, we show the basic multilevel car parking system with two floors. Although we show the concept with two floors, it is still possible to show this concept on multiple floors. Also, in this project, we will show two floors with 4 sensors on each floor. The lift carries the car to each floor. Along with these 8 sensors, we use two separate sensors for each floor. With the help of these sensors, the lift stops automatically.
When we press a start switch, the lift automatically starts and immediately senses the space in the parking station. If the space is available, the lift will start or stop on particular floor, which is displayed in the LCD. If no space is available, the lift stops and displays the message “no space”.
If all the spaces are vacant, the lift will park the vehicle on priority basis.
The earliest known multi-storey car park was built in 1918. It was built for the Hotel La Salle in Chicago, IL at 215 West Washington Street in the West Loop area of downtown. It was designed by Holabird and Roche. The Hotel La Salle was demolished in 1976, but the parking structure remained because it had been designated as preliminary landmark status and the structure was located several blocks from the hotel it was built to service. The Hotel LaSalle multi-storey was demolished in 2005 after failing to receive landmark status from the city of Chicago. Jupiter Realty Corp. of Chicago is constructing a 49-storey apartment tower in its place, with construction underway as of March 2008.
Automated car parks rely on similar technology that is used for mechanical handling and document retrieval. The driver leaves the car in an entrance module. It is then transported to a parking slot by a robot trolley. For the driver, the process of parking is reduced to leaving the car inside an entrance module.
At peak periods a wait may be involved before entering or leaving. The wait is due to the fact that loading passengers and luggage occurs at the entrance and exit location rather than at the parked stall. This loading blocks the entrance or exit from being available to others. Whether the retrieval of vehicles is faster in an automatic car park or a self park car park depends on the layout and number of exits.
COMPLETE PROJECT IS TO BE DIVIDED INTO FEW PARTS:
In this project, we use 5 volt regulated power supply. For this purpose, we use a single step down transformer with full wave rectifier circuit. In the rectifier circuit, we use two diodes as a full wave rectifier. One 1000mfd capacitor is used as a filter capacitor to convert pulsating dc into smooth dc. Output of the rectifier is not regulated, so for regulated power supply we use IC 7805 as a regulator. Output of the 7805 regulator is connected to one led with a resistance in series. LED works as a power indication circuit.
Here the step down transformer used is a center tap transformer. We use center tap transformer in a full wave rectifier circuit.
In this project, we use a reed switch as a sensor. Reed switch is a special magnetic proximity sensor. When this reed sensor is activated by an external magnetic field, the reed sensor is activated automatically. In the reed sensor, there are two wires inside the glass casing. When an external magnetic field affects the sensor, these plates join together and become short automatically. We use this sensor in our project to sense the position of the car and of the lift on floor. When the lift moves, it searches the reed sensor for stoppage. We paste one magnet with the lift and when the lift move up-wards, then magnet searches the sensor. As the sensor is sensed by the magnet, the lift stops there automatically.
So whenever we want to stop the lift or check the position of the vehicle, we search the magnetic sensor. When any car is parked on the desired position, the sensor activates and provides a signal to the controller. The controller checks the change of voltage on this pin and saves this data for auto sensing logic.When sensor is active, the port pin becomes more negative and this change of voltage from high to low is our required signal.
In this project, we use the 8051 controller to interface all the inputs and outputs. In the input device, we use 10 sensors and one start switch. In output, we use one LCD as a display and one motor to move up-ward and down word. The brain inside the controller is to control all these inputs and outputs and perform perfectly. 8051 is basically an INTEL IC but now in these days it is available with many companies. We use ATMEL 89S51 series with advance feature than 8051. ATMEL 89S51 is a 40 pin controller with 128 bytes of ram and 4 k byte of ROM inside. Pin no. 40 of the controller is connected to the positive 5 volt power supply. We provide a 5 volt regulated power supply on this pin. Pin no 9 is the reset pin and this pin is connected to a capacitor and resistor network to provide an auto-reset option, when controller is wake-up. For manually reset, we connect one push to on switch in parallel with the capacitor to provide manual reset option. Pin no. 20 is connected to the ground pin. Pin no. 18 and 19 are connected to the external crystal to provide a constant oscillation to the circuit. Two capacitors are grounded from the crystal pins to provide stabilization. All the reed sensors are connected to port p1 and port p3. First floor parking sensors are connected to the p1.0, p1.1, p1.2, p1.3. These four sensors are related to the first floor sensor. Second floor sensors are p1.4, p1.5, p1.6, p1.7. First floor stoppage sensor is p3.2 and second floor stoppage sensor is p3.3. Start switch of this project is p3.0. On this start switch either we connect a start switch or we connect an infra red sensor. In the case of infra red sensor, when the car enters the parking position, the lift senses automatically and starts.
Motor of the lift is connected to the p2.0 and p2.1. Output of these pins is connected to the opto coupler circuit. Here we use a pc 817 opto coupler to provide an electrical isolation between motor control circuit and micro controller. Output from the controller is connected to the cathode of infra red led through 470 ohm resistor. When controller is on, the infra red led is on due to negative output from the controller. When infra red LED inside the coupler is on then this light drive the internal phototransistor of the coupler. Output from the coupler is now connected to the H bridge circuit. In the H bridge circuit, we use four transistor circuits with one dc motor. In the H Bridge, we use a four transistor circuit. In this four transistor circuit, two transistors are NPN and two transistors are PNP. With the help of these four transistors, we control the direction of the motor. Not only we control the direction of motor but also, at the same time these transistors share the load of the motor directly.
Port p0 of the controller is connected to the LCD directly. Here we use port p0 with the data pins of the ASCII code. LCD displays only the ASCII code. In the programming, we convert the digital code in to ASCII code by adding 30h in any binary number. So to provide a data in the LCD, we send these codes by the 8 data lines. These data lines from the controller is from the p0.0 to p0.7
P2.5, p2.6, p2.7 is connected to the control pins of the LCD. On this control pin, we select the command register, data register and the enable pin. We use the command and the data register pins to send the data and command separately.
Advantages of Multi-story car parking system:
A city like Delhi has over five million cars and two-wheelers on its roads, but not enough parking spaces. The demand for parking space has, on an average in the main markets of Delhi, outstripped demand by 43 per cent. It is not just a problem of Delhi or Mumbai; all the big cities in India are facing the space crunch. Parking space is fast becoming a major issue in other cities like Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Pune and other urban and semi-urban cities.
Automatic multi-storey car parks provide lower building cost per parking slot, as they typically require less building volume and less ground area than a conventional facility with the same capacity. However, the cost of the mechanical equipment within the building that is needed to transport cars internally needs to be added to the lower building cost to determine the total costs. Other costs are usually lower too, for example there is no need for an energy intensive ventilating system, since cars are not driven inside and human cashiers or security personnel may not be needed.
A multi-storey car parks offer greatest possible flexibility for the realization of optimum parking solution. A fast parking process in which the driver does not have to maneuver his car or drive backwards, guarantees highest comfort and security. A single lift serves 6 to 12 parking spaces per level taking up a minimum of space. Time-saving vertical and horizontal movements take place simultaneously ensuring fast parking and retrieval times.
Limitations of a multi-storey car parking system:
The subjective analysis has shown that the greatest effects of a Multi-Storey Car Park on Surrounding Residential Blocks are the air and noise pollution caused by the motor vehicles. Parking lots also tend to be subject to contamination with concentrated spots of pollutants such as motor oil.
Also, they often cover large contiguous areas with impermeable paving surface. This means that virtually all of the rain (minus evaporation) that falls becomes runoff. The parking lot must be built to effectively channel and collect runoff. Traditionally, the runoff has been shunted directly into storm sewers, streams, or even sanitary sewers. However, larger municipalities now require retention basins to catch runoff to reduce the stress on sewer systems.
Many areas today also require minimum landscaping in parking lots. This usually principally means the planting of trees to provide shade. Customers have long preferred shaded parking spaces in the summer, but parking lot providers have long been antagonistic to planting trees because of the extra cost of cleaning the parking lot.
Also, the challenges which the developers are facing in implementing these technologies in India include the service backup. The challenge is for the authority is to realize the need and move quickly.