This paper describes the design of a simple, low-cost microcontroller based heart rate measuring device with LCD output. Heart rate of the subject is measured from the finger using sensors and the rate is then averaged and displayed on a text based LCD.
The LCD of the heart beat monitor shows the beat per minute.The sensor part consists of sensing elements,LDR(light dependent resistor) and LED(light emitting diode),a comparator module,a low pass filter.Heart beat is sensed by the sensing elements and the comparator produces an amplified square wave output.The comparator output is given to a low pass filter and the filter output is fed to one of the digital inputs of PIC 16F877a type micro controller. The micro controller output ports drives the LCD.
This paper describes the design of a very low-cost device which measures the heart rate of the subject by clipping sensors on one of the fingers and then displaying the result on a text based LCD. Advantage of such a design is that it can be expanded and can easily be connected to a recording device or a PC to collect and analyse the data for over a period of time.
The short message system (SMS) of a standard mobile phone can be used for much more than just exchanging cryptic message. This application finds a humble mobile working for controlling external equipments. The SMS service provides by the service providers are comparatively low cost. Hence the system is highly efficient and low-cost.
Mobile phones have become a widespread means of communication. It becomes a part of everyday life with ever more people enjoying the service and extra freedom they provide. It works on the basis of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). A subscriber from any systems can access telecommunication services by using a Subscriber Identify Module (SIM) card in a handset suitable for the network on the visited system The Short Message Service allows text messages to be sent and received to and from mobile telephones.
The text can comprise words or numbers or an alphanumeric combination. Because Simple person – to – person messaging is such an important component of total SMS traffic volumes, anything that simplifies message generation as well as extended utility of the SMS being sent is an important enabler of Short Message Service.
We will connect hardware kit i.e. GSM modem and microcontroller to the energy meter. The main aim of this project is whenever u r recharging with some amount say example Rs.100/- by doing SMS to the MODEM, the bulb gets automatically ON until your recharge gets zero. After getting your balance zero your device gets automatically switched OFF and you will get a message from the MODEM that you have to recharge your mobile and the process takes place continuously.
- AT command supporting GSM mobile phone.
- 89c51 Microcontroller
- Max 232 IC.
- DB9 Connector
- GSM Phone
1. Keil u-Vision
Keil Software is used provide you with software development tools for 8051 based microcontrollers. With the Keil tools, you can generate embedded applications for virtually every 8051 derivative. The supported microcontrollers are listed in the µ-vision.
2. PRO51 Programmer Software
In this project, we show the basic multilevel car parking system with two floors. Although we show the concept with two floors, it is still possible to show this concept on multiple floors. Also, in this project, we will show two floors with 4 sensors on each floor. The lift carries the car to each floor. Along with these 8 sensors, we use two separate sensors for each floor. With the help of these sensors, the lift stops automatically.
When we press a start switch, the lift automatically starts and immediately senses the space in the parking station. If the space is available, the lift will start or stop on particular floor, which is displayed in the LCD. If no space is available, the lift stops and displays the message “no space”.
If all the spaces are vacant, the lift will park the vehicle on priority basis.
The earliest known multi-storey car park was built in 1918. It was built for the Hotel La Salle in Chicago, IL at 215 West Washington Street in the West Loop area of downtown. It was designed by Holabird and Roche. The Hotel La Salle was demolished in 1976, but the parking structure remained because it had been designated as preliminary landmark status and the structure was located several blocks from the hotel it was built to service. The Hotel LaSalle multi-storey was demolished in 2005 after failing to receive landmark status from the city of Chicago. Jupiter Realty Corp. of Chicago is constructing a 49-storey apartment tower in its place, with construction underway as of March 2008.
Automated car parks rely on similar technology that is used for mechanical handling and document retrieval. The driver leaves the car in an entrance module. It is then transported to a parking slot by a robot trolley. For the driver, the process of parking is reduced to leaving the car inside an entrance module.
At peak periods a wait may be involved before entering or leaving. The wait is due to the fact that loading passengers and luggage occurs at the entrance and exit location rather than at the parked stall. This loading blocks the entrance or exit from being available to others. Whether the retrieval of vehicles is faster in an automatic car park or a self park car park depends on the layout and number of exits.
COMPLETE PROJECT IS TO BE DIVIDED INTO FEW PARTS:
In this project, we use 5 volt regulated power supply. For this purpose, we use a single step down transformer with full wave rectifier circuit. In the rectifier circuit, we use two diodes as a full wave rectifier. One 1000mfd capacitor is used as a filter capacitor to convert pulsating dc into smooth dc. Output of the rectifier is not regulated, so for regulated power supply we use IC 7805 as a regulator. Output of the 7805 regulator is connected to one led with a resistance in series. LED works as a power indication circuit.
Here the step down transformer used is a center tap transformer. We use center tap transformer in a full wave rectifier circuit.
In this project, we use a reed switch as a sensor. Reed switch is a special magnetic proximity sensor. When this reed sensor is activated by an external magnetic field, the reed sensor is activated automatically. In the reed sensor, there are two wires inside the glass casing. When an external magnetic field affects the sensor, these plates join together and become short automatically. We use this sensor in our project to sense the position of the car and of the lift on floor. When the lift moves, it searches the reed sensor for stoppage. We paste one magnet with the lift and when the lift move up-wards, then magnet searches the sensor. As the sensor is sensed by the magnet, the lift stops there automatically.
So whenever we want to stop the lift or check the position of the vehicle, we search the magnetic sensor. When any car is parked on the desired position, the sensor activates and provides a signal to the controller. The controller checks the change of voltage on this pin and saves this data for auto sensing logic.When sensor is active, the port pin becomes more negative and this change of voltage from high to low is our required signal.