Present project is designed using 8051 microcontroller to avoid railway accidents happening at unattended railway gates, if implemented in spirit. This project utilizes two powerful IR transmitters and two receivers; one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from where the train comes) at a level higher than a human being in exact alignment and similarly the other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction. Sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the Indian railway. We have considered 5 seconds for this project. Sensors are fixed at 1km on both sides of the gate. We call the sensor along the train direction as ‘foreside sensor’ and the other as ‘aft side sensor’. When foreside receiver gets activated, the gate motor is turned on in one direction and the gate is closed and stays closed until the train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors. When aft side receiver gets activated motor turns in opposite direction and gate opens and motor stops. Buzzer will immediately sound at the fore side receiver activation and gate will close after 5 seconds, so giving time to drivers to clear gate area in order to avoid trapping between the gates and stop sound after the train has crossed.
The same principle is applied for track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are traveling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Two sensors are placed at the either sides of the junction where the track switches. If there’s a train approaching from the other side, then another sensor placed along that direction gets activated and will send an interrupt to the controller. The interrupt service routine switches the track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions. Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. Assuming that within a certain delay, the train has passed the track is switched back to its original position, allowing the first train to pass without any interruption. This concept of track switching can be applied at 1km distance from the stations.
Railways being the cheapest mode of transportation are preferred over all the other means .When we go through the daily newspapers we come across many railway accidents occurring at unmanned railway crossings. This is mainly due to the carelessness in manual operations or lack of workers. We, in this project has come up with a solution for the same. Using simple electronic components we have tried to automate the control of railway gates. As a train approaches the railway crossing from either side, the sensors placed at a certain distance from the gate detects the approaching train and accordingly controls the operation of the gate. Also an indicator light has been provided to alert the motorists about the approaching train.
Using the same principle as that for gate control, we have developed a concept of automatic track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are travelling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions .Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. In practical purposes this can be achieved using electromagnets.
The project consists of four main parts:
- 8051 microcontroller
- IR Transmitter
- IR Receiver
- Stepper Motor Circuit
The main objective of this project is to implement an Pass word Based Door Locking System Using AT89c51 Microcontroller.
Security is a prime concern in our day-today life. Everyone wants to be as much secure as possible. An access control for doors forms a vital link in a security chain. The microcontroller based Door locker is an access control system that allows only authorized persons to access a restricted area. The system is fully controlled by the 8 bit microcontroller AT89C51 which has a 2Kbytes of ROM for the program memory. The password is stored in the EPROM so that we can change it at any time.
The system has a Keypad by which the password can be entered through it. When the entered password equals with the password stored in the memory then the Stepper motor rotate forward side so that the door is opened. If we entered a wrong password for more than three times then the Alarm is switched on. When we go inside and come back then the microcontroller will sense the person using the IR, the microcontroller will automatically open the door for you.
The default password is 1111 and you can change the password by dialing 1234, old password, and new password #button. for example if you want to change the password from the default to 4523 then dial 123411114523# after dialing you can hear a beep sound which confirm the operation goes successful.
- AT89c51 Microcontroller
- Stepper motor
- ULN2003 Motor Driver
- 5V Buzzer
- Embedded C
- KEIL Demo Version with Simulator
Notice Board is primary thing in any institution / organization or public utility places like bus stations, railway stations and parks. But sticking various notices day-to-day is a difficult process. A separate person is required to take care of this notices display. This project deals about an advanced hi-tech notice board.
The project is built around the AT89C52 micro controller from Atmel. This micro controller provides all the functionality of the display and control. It also takes care of creating different display effects for given text.
Matrix type display is designed using 5mm LED on a printed circuit board. A driver circuit is designed to drive all these LEDs. A simple PC key board can be connected to this system to enter the required text or notice. Several scrolling effects can be selected using function keys of keyboard. The scrolling spped of the text also can be changed according to user requirement.
After entering the text, the user can disconnect the keyboard. At any time the user can add or remove or alter the text according to his requirement. This project uses regulated 5V, 1A power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.
- +5V, 750mA Regulated Power Supply
- LED 5mm
- RF Modules
- PC Key Board
- Colleges, Schools, offices, public utility places